Using Single-Word Kāhulu
IntroductionThis assignment will allow you to practice one of the most basic and important building blocks of Hawaiian language: the kaʻi + memeʻa + kāhulu sequence. You will be able to use the knowledge you have gained so far to be able to create some fun, simple, and useful phrases! If you are arriving here wondering what any of this means, here are the previous lessons you should have already completed:
- Video Lesson 0601V The Kaʻi Determiners #1: He
- Video Lesson 0602V The Kaʻi Determiners #2: Ka, Ke
- Video Lesson 0603V The Kaʻi Determiners #3: Kekahi
- Video Lesson 0604V Memeʻa Content Words (kikino, ʻaʻano, hamani, hehele)
- Grammar Lesson 0901G Describing Using Single-Word Kāhulu
Learn VocabularyI am going to give you two great lists of vocabulary words you should definitely memorize, because they are commonly used Hawaiian words. The first set contains kikino (common nouns), and the second contains ʻaʻano (describing words). Take these vocabulary words and write them onto index cards or into a notebook and study them until you start to remember them. You don’t have to be perfect at recalling them at this time. And I know what you may be thinking: It is possible to print this page right from a computer! But I think you’ll find that writing the words will (1) make you see each word better, and (2) help you to see its shape better so you can recognize it later on, and (3) give you much more of a chance to cogitate on the meanings as you go through the lists!
Kikino (noun-like words)
|ke keiki||boy, son, child|
|ke keikikāne||boy, son|
|ke kaikamahine2||girl, daughter|
|ka wahine||female, woman|
|ke kāne||male, man|
|ka luahine||old woman|
|ke kumu||teacher; source; trunk of tree|
|ka ʻanakala||uncle (from English)|
|ke alanui||street, road|
|ka ʻanakē||aunty (from English)|
|ka hale||house, building|
|ka ʻekemakule||old man|
- 1. be careful with the word haumāna. There is always a kahakō regardless of whether it is singlular or plural.
- 2. the word kaikamahine is often pronounced “keikiamahine” although it is not written that way.
- 3. pākaukau retains the kaʻi “ke” rather than “ka” as one might expect.
ʻAʻano (words describing a state or condition)
|mākaukau||ready; capable at doing something|
|hemahema||uncoordinated; weak; maladroit|
|huʻihuʻi||cold (the object)|
|anuanu||cold (the feeling)|
|wela||hot (of an object or a feeling)|
|ola||alive, living; better (after being unwell)|
|ehuehu||healthy (in good health); also ahuahu|
|nuha||grumpy (internalized); obstinate|
|huhū||angry, displeased, or resentful (outwardly)|
|ʻoluʻolu||kind (disposition); comfortable (as a chair or cool temperature)|
|kahiko||ancient, from the olden days|
|momona||sweet tasting; fatty or greasy (in a good way); corpulent|
Making Simple PhrasesThe next step is to remember how to build a sequence of words which allow you to say things like “the famous island” or “the quick car”. These are not sentences; rather, they are just little bits of what could be a complete sentence (like, “I went to the famous island last week” or “I have a quick car“). The order we will use for this practice is, of course, as follows: kaʻi + memeʻa + kāhulu. Remember that a kāhulu can be made of any memeʻa-type word (a kikino, an ʻaʻano, a hamani, or a hehele). This is one of the things that makes Hawaiian so amazingly powerful! Unlike in English, where we have to remember to change endings or even use different words for the same feeling (e.g., “good” vs. “well”), any memeʻa can be used to describe another just by putting it immediately afterwards. Make up as many combinations as seem to make sense using the vocabulary in this practice lesson, and any other memeʻa you might know already or look up in Ulukau’s “Wehewehe Wikiwiki” online dictionary. Here are some examples:
|ka makua ehuehu||the healthy and strong parent|
|ke pākaukau nunui||the huge table|
|he mokupuni nui||a large island|
|he kaikamahine hauʻoli||a happy girl|
|kekahi kaʻa hou||another new car|
Putting Practice To UseThe final part to this practice is to now go out and try to use these kaʻi + memeʻa + kāhulu combinations. As you drive around or walk to work or watch television, take a look at things and try to recall how to describe them. If you run into a word you don’t know, no problem! Just use the English one until you have a chance to learn the Hawaiian word. For example, you might see a large pizza or a broken table, but you don’t know the word for pizza or broken; you should just say “he pizza nui!” or “ke pākaukau broken”. Just have fun and enjoy the words you do know and get the order right first and foremost.
Next StepsTo continue practicing how to create kaʻi + memeʻa + kāhulu phrases, head over to the next item in this section: 0902P ʻAilāʻau The Forest Eater in which you will read an interesting short story and use some more vocabulary words to create more short phrases.