Create Your First Pepeke Henua
This is your first video to help you practice basic Pepeke Henua! You will practice using ʻami (determiners such as i and ma, as well as i and iā) in basic Pepeke Henua. You will be able to practice what you have learned about Pepeke Henua and the various ʻami from the following videos, which you should have watched first:
- 0800V Introduction to Pepeke
- 0801V Pepeke Henua "Something is Somewhere"
- 0601V to 0605V explaining basic word types
- 0606V The ʻAmi "i"/"ma" in Pepeke Henua
- 0607V The ʻAmi "i"/"iā" and "me" in Pepeke Henua
You will need a pen and paper for this video, during which you will practice sentences that I give you to write down. You will also have to make up sentences of your own after being given vocabulary words.
Many of the pictures in this video are variations of those presented in the instructional videos, so although they are not exactly the same, I hope that the situations shown in the pictures will remind you of the vocabulary words and structures you learned in the instructional videos up to this point. Have fun!
Please scroll past the answers below and go and watch the video first!
Answers and Analysis of Practice Sentences From The Video
These exercises check your understanding of two very common ways to use Pepeke Henua: (1) to say that something is together with something else; and (2) to say that someone has something specific in his or her possession. The answers for the English sentences we created in the video are below.
- 1. The pencils are together with the box.
- Aia nā penikala me ka pahu.
- Analysis: Note that it is important to understand that we are using the ʻami "me" to mean "together with" in this instance. We are not saying that the pencils are in the box (for which we would use i or ma meaning "in, on, or at" and say "Aia nā penikala ma ka pahu" or "Aia nā penikala i ka pahu".
Aia nā penikala ma ka pahu
- 2. The box is [together] with the pencils.
- Aia ka pahu me nā penikala.
Aia ka pahu me nā penikala
- 3. The pencil is with the boy.
- Aia ka penikala me ke keiki.
- Analysis: Remember that we are being sure to learn the distinction between someone having something and someone being with something, so when we say "The pencil is with the boy" we are simply saying the latter in a very objective sense and not trying to imply ownership.
Aia ka penikala me ke keiki.
- 4. The pencil is with Keala.
- Aia ka penikala me Keala.
- Analysis: Here we switch to putting an iʻoa (name) into the ʻawe instead of the kaʻi + memeʻa sequence we used in the previous questions. This means that we do not need to use a kaʻi (like ka, ke, nā, kekahi, and so on) after the ʻami (which is me in this case).
Aia ka penikala me Keala
- 5. Keala has the pencil
- Aia ka penikala iā Keala
Now we move into actually saying that someone has something, but we want to remember that in this case, we are using Pepeke Henua with the ʻami i or iā to point to who has possession of the item at this time. Think of asking someone, "Who has the pencil I put down right here just two minutes ago?!" The response could be "Oh, Keala has it. Keala has the pencil." (ʻŌ! Aia iā Keala. Aia ka penikala iā Keala.")
So we are best using this type of pattern with a specific object which someone has, rather than the non-specific "Keala has a pencil" which will use a different pattern that you will learn later on.
Aia ka penikala iā Keala.
- 6. Keala is at the house in Honolulu
- Aia ʻo Keala ma ka hale i Honolulu
We have a new type of piko here: this one uses an iʻoa (name) instead of the kaʻi+memeʻa sequences we have been using above. To indicate that a name is coming up in the piko, we always want to use ʻo. Again, that little ʻo is very important: it tells the listener that a proper name is coming up.
Of course, as usual, you should not use a leading kaʻi when you have an iʻoa at this stage of our learning. (For example, "Aia ke Keala ma ka hale" and "Aia ʻo ke Keala ma ka hale" are both wrong.)
Finally, note that we can use i or ma to indicate in, on, or at in Pepeke Henua, as well as many other places.
Aia ʻo Keala ma ka hale i Honolulu.
- 7. Keala has the pencil in the house in Honolulu.
- Aia ka penikala iā Keala ma ka hale i Honolulu.
- Analysis: Combine the use of someone having possession of something specific with your ʻami showing location. We also have multiple ʻawe in this example which is very very common in Hawaiian language; that's how sentences can become very long indeed. To the listener however, they are very "modular" in the way that they are built in these easily recognizable chunks, each one starting with an ʻami. Take a look at the sentence diagram below to see these "chunks".
Aia ka penikala iā Keala ma ka hale i Honolulu.
- 8. Keala has the blue box in the classroom at school in Kaimukī.
- Aia ka pahu uliuli iā Keala ma ka lumi papa ma ke kula i Kaimukī.
Aia ka pahu uliuli iā Keala ma ka lumi papa ma ke kula i Kaimukī.
- 1. The man has the sign [in his possession]
- Aia ka hōʻailona i ke kāne.
- Analysis: You may have had to look this word hōʻailona up for yourself. It's a common one, so try to memorize it.
Aia ka hōʻailona i ke kāne.
- 2. The children are [together] with the woman.
- Aia nā keiki me ka wahine.
Aia nā keiki me ka wahine.
- 3. Kuʻuipo has the red book.
- Aia ka puke ʻulaʻula iā Kuʻuipo.
- Analysis: Notice that we added a kāhulu (a descriptor) to the word puke to say "red book", and that the order in English is backwards compared to the Hawaiian. In Hawaiian, the thing we are talking about (the book in this case) comes first, and then the description words and/or clauses all come immediately after it. Doesn't that just seem more logical to you? It sure does to me!
Aia ka puke ʻulaʻula iā Kuʻuipo.
- 4. Kaʻiʻini has the blue book.
- Aia ka puke uliuli iā Kaʻiʻini.
Aia ka puke uliuli iā Kaʻiʻini.
- 1. The boy is with the girl.
- Aia ke keikikāne me ke kaikamahine.
Aia ke keikikāne me ke kaikamahine.
- 2. The girl has the orange book.
- Aia ka puke ʻalani i ke kaikamahine.
Note that it would be improper for us to use ma as our ʻami here, because ma only shows location (in, on, or at), whereas i can show either location or this kind of possession we have been talking about in this lesson.
When we hear or see the sentence, we apply our understanding of context and logic to determine quickly which use of i we are getting: in this case, I am not expecting that I am being told that "the orange book is on the girl" because I can plainly see that she has the book in her hand (therefore she "has" it).
Aia ka puke ʻalani i ke kaikamahine.
- 3. The boy has the big book.
- Aia ka puke nui i ke keikikāne.
Aia ka puke nui i ke keikikāne.
- 4. The girl has the orange book on the floor in the bedroom at the house in Hilo.
- Aia ka puke ʻalani i ke kaikamahine ma ka papahele ma ka lumi moe ma ka hale i Hilo.
- Analysis: Combine your knowledge of showing who has something specific (the orange book) with simple location in space or time (on the floor, in the bedroom, at the house, in Hilo).
Aia ka puke ʻalani i ke kaikamahine ma ka papahele ma ka lumi moe ma ka hale i Hilo.
- 1. The walking machine is on the floor.
- Aia ka mīkini hele ma ka papahele.
Aia ka mīkini hele ma ka papahele.
- 2. The red paper is on the floor.
- Aia ka pepa ʻulaʻula ma ka papahele.
Aia ka pepa ʻulaʻula ma ka papahele.
- 3. The dog has [posession of] the homework.
- Aia ka haʻawina hoʻihoʻi i ka ʻīlio.
Imagine asking the question, "Who took my homework?" or "Who has my homework?!?" This is a good answer to that question and shows how the ʻami i is showing that possession of a specific object (the homework).
Also note there are a couple of popular ways to say "homework". One is "haʻawina pili home" and the other is "haʻawina hoʻihoʻi". Either way is fine and everyone knows both ways of saying it.
Aia ka haʻawina hoʻihoʻi i ka ʻīlio.
- 4. The dog is on the grass at the park in Kapahulu.
- Aia ka ʻīlio ma ka mauʻu i ka pāka ma Kapahulu.
Aia ka ʻīlio ma ka mauʻu i ka pāka ma Kapahulu.
- 1. The girls are in the rain.
- Aia nā kaikamāhine ma ka ua.
- Analysis: Note that when we want to say kaikamahine (girl) in the plural, we have to add a kahakō to say "kaikamāhine". There are about 14 words in Hawaiian which do this, and they are all related to people. You will learn about them in another lesson. For now, know that you will have one kaikamahine, and many kaikamāhine.
Aia nā kaikamāhine ma ka ua.
- 2. The girl has the ʻukulele.
- Aia ka ʻukulele i ke kaikamahine.
Aia ka ʻukulele i ke kaikamahine.
I hope you have enjoyed this practice lesson and gained some understanding of how Pepeke Henua can work to not only show location in space or time, but also possession of a specific item. Be sure to make up some of your own sentences using my "plug-and-play" methodology of changing only single words or single phrases within the sentences as you go from one to the next, and be sure to say them out loud to yourself and even record yourself saying them!
If you wish to practice some more with Pepeke Henua, consider doing H0801 Pepeke Henua Homework #1.
The next practice video in this series is V1002 Practice Pepeke Henua in Place and Time.
- Making sure you have seen required videos
- Remembering i / ma, me, and i / iā
- "Something is Somewhere" Pepeke Henua
- Practice English to Hawaiian examples
- The meaning of the name Kaimukī.
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